聚师网导读:不知何时起,“笑贫不笑娼”成为了人们常常挂在嘴边的话。而古时以为上卿的故事或许可以给我们一些启迪。

聚师文苑:

叔向贺贫

叔向见韩宣子,宣子忧贫,叔向贺之。宣子曰:“吾有卿之名而无其实,无以从二三子,吾是以忧,子贺我,何故?”

对曰:“昔栾武子无一卒之田,其宫不备其宗器,宣其德行,顺其宪则,使越于诸侯。诸侯亲之,戎狄怀之,以正晋国。行刑不疚,以免于难。及桓子,骄泰奢侈,贪欲无艺,略则行志,假货居贿,宜及于难,而赖武之德以没其身。及怀子,改桓之行,而修武之德,可以免于难,而离桓之罪,以亡于楚。夫郤昭子,其富半公室,其家半三军,恃其富宠,以泰于国。其身尸于朝,其宗灭于绛。不然,夫八郤,五大夫,三卿,其宠大矣,一朝而灭,莫之哀也,唯无德也。今吾子有栾武子之贫,吾以为能其德矣,是以贺。若不忧德之不建,而患货之不足,将吊不暇,何贺之有?”

宣子拜,稽首焉,曰:“起也将亡,赖子存之,非起也敢专承之,其自桓叔以下,嘉吾子之赐。”

聚师译站:

Uncle went to see Han Xuanzi, who was worried about poverty, but he congratulated him.

Xuanzi said, "I have the name of the Qing Doctor, but I do not have the wealth of the Qing Doctor. There is no honor to associate with other Qing Doctors. I am worried about this, but you congratulate me. What is the reason? "

The uncle answered, "In the past Luanwuzi did not have 100 hectares of land, and his family was poor, even with inadequate sacrificial utensils; however, he was able to spread virtue, abide by the legal system, and was well known in all the princes and states. All the princes and kingdoms were close to him, and some minority nationalities were attached to him, so that the Jin State could settle down and enforce its laws without any ills, thus avoiding disasters. When it came to Huanzi, he was arrogant, extravagant, insatiable, illegal, and profitable. He should suffer misfortune, but only relying on his father Luan Wuzi's Yu De could he end up well. When Huaizi arrived at Huaizi, Huaizi changed his father's Huanzi's behavior and learned his grandfather's Wuzi's virtues, which could have saved him from disaster, but he fled to Chu because of the sin of his father's Huanzi. That Zhaozi, whose property is equal to half of the property of Jin State, whose servants are equal to half of the property of the Third Army, lived a very luxurious life in Jin State depending on his property and power. Finally, his corpse was shown in the court, and his clan was destroyed in Jiang State. If not, five of the eight surnames are doctors and three are Qing. They are powerful enough, but once they are banned, no one sympathizes with them, just because they have no virtue! Now you have Luan Wuzi's poverty situation, I think you can inherit his virtues, so congratulations, if you do not worry about the establishment of virtues, but only worry about the lack of property, I express sorrow is too late, where can you congratulate? "

Xuanzi then bowed down and kowtowed, "When I was on the verge of extinction, you saved me. Your kindness is not to be borne alone. I am afraid all descendants under my ancestor Huan Shu will thank you for your kindness. "

聚师点睛:

本文通过人物对话的方式,先提出"宣子忧贫,叔向贺之"这个出人意料的问题,然后层层深入地展开论述。文章先不直接说明所以要贺的原因,而是举出栾、郤两家的事例说明,贫可贺,富可忧,可贺可忧的关键在于是否有德。继而将宣子与栾武子加以类比,点出可贺的原因,并进一步指出,如果不建德而忧贫,则不但不可贺,反而是可吊的,点出本文的中心论点。最后用韩宣子的拜服作结,说明论点,有巨大的说服力。这样既把道理讲得清清楚楚,又使人感到亲切自然。本文引用历史事实,阐明了贫不足忧,而应重视建德,没有德行,则愈富有而祸害愈大,有德行则可转祸为福的道理。

这段文字记叙了叔向向韩宣子提建议的过程。叔向的建议,采用了正反结合的阐述方法,因此相当有说服力,他的言论一方面固然是为了卿大夫身家的长久之计,另一方面也对"骄泰奢侈,贪欲无艺"的行为提出了批评,这无论是在当时还是在如今,都是有很深刻的警示作用。

English Version:This paper first puts forward the unexpected question of "Xuanzi is worried about poverty and his uncle congratulates him" through the way of character dialogue, and then discusses it in depth layer by layer. The article does not directly explain the reason why we want to congratulate, but cites Luan and Yun as examples to illustrate that the key to happiness lies in virtue. Then, Xuanzi and Luanwuzi are compared to point out the reasons for congratulations, and further pointed out that if we do not build virtue and worry about poverty, it is not congratulatory, but suspensable, point out the central point of this article. At last, it concludes with Han Xuanzi's worship to illustrate the argument, which has great persuasion. This not only makes the truth clear, but also makes people feel friendly and natural. This paper quotes historical facts to clarify that poverty is not enough and worries about it. We should attach importance to building morality. Without morality, the richer the wealth, the greater the harm, and virtue can turn disaster into happiness.

This passage describes the process in which my uncle made suggestions to Han Xuanzi. Uncle Xiang's suggestion is quite persuasive because of the combination of positive and negative explanations. On the one hand, his remarks are for the sake of the long-term plan of the Qing Doctor's family. On the other hand, he criticizes the behavior of "arrogance, luxury, greed and craftlessness", which has a profound warning effect both at that time and today.