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聚师网导读:古语云:“君子有所为有所不为。”身为一名国君更应如此。懂得把自己摆在统治者的地位上,做一个明君应该做的事情,克己复礼,这样才能更好地统治国家,成就大业。

聚师文苑:

春,公将如棠观鱼者。臧僖伯谏曰:“凡物不足以讲大事,其材不足以备器用,则君不举焉。君将纳民于轨物者也。故讲事以度轨量,谓之‘轨’;取材以章物采,谓之‘物’。不轨不物,谓之乱政。乱政亟行,所以败也。故春蒐、夏苗、秋狝、冬狩,皆于农隙以讲事也。三年而治兵,入而振旅,归而饮至,以数军实。昭文章,明贵贱,辨等列,顺少长,习威仪也。鸟兽之肉不登于俎,皮革、齿牙、骨角、毛羽不登于器,则君不射,古之制也。若夫山林川泽之实,器用之资,皂隶之事,官司之守,非君所及也。”

聚师译站:

In spring, Yingong was going to Tangdi to watch the fishermen fishing. Zang Qibo said, "If articles can't be used for sacrifices, military affairs, etc., or materials can't be used to make ceremonies and weapons, then the monarch should not touch them personally. A monarch is a person who leads people to social norms and codes of conduct. Therefore, the major events of the seminar are measured by the criterion of law, which is called "track". It is called "object" that materials are selected to make objects to display their cultural colors. Things that do not conform to the rules are called disorderly government. This is the reason why it failed. Therefore, hunting activities in spring, summer, autumn and winter are carried out in the idle season of agriculture, and military training (taking this opportunity). Every three years, the army should be restored when it returns home. They should go to the temple for sacrifices, feasts and celebrations, and count military objects and prey. In carrying out these activities, we should (make the carriages, horses, costumes, banners, etc.) have bright and colorful culture, distinct nobility and lowness, well-ranked and orderly growth: these are the prestige of lecturing on important events! The meat of birds and animals can not be put into sacrificial utensils, and the leather, teeth, bone horns and feathers can not be used to make military utensils. Such birds and animals, the monarch will not shoot them. This is from ancient times. Since the rules ah! As for the property of mountains, forests, rivers and rivers, and the materials of general utensils, these are all things that the servants are busy with, and that the officials are to be managed according to their duties, rather than what the monarch should be involved in. Yingong said, "I'm going to visit there." So he went to Tangdi and asked the fisherman to put out all kinds of fishing gear for fishing. He watched it there. Cen Botui said he was ill and did not go with him. "Spring and Autumn" said: "Yingong in Tangdi display fishing gear." It's not polite, and he goes far away from the capital.

聚师热评:

这篇谏辞的最大特点,是紧紧围绕着一个“礼”字展开劝谏,从观点到为阐明观点所举述的诸多理由及作为论据的事物和行为,都没有稍稍离开这个“礼”字。也就是说,没有稍稍离开制约当时国君行为的规范和准则。另一个也很明显的特点是,劝谏的缘起虽然是“公将如棠观鱼”,劝谏的直接目的也是阻止隐公“如棠观鱼”,但谏辞中对此事却不着一语。这不单单是婉言法,更重要的是,这种表达法反映出进谏者进谏的着眼点,并不在于隐公“如棠观鱼”这一具体行为,而是当时的整个礼制。如果隐公听了臧僖伯这番谏辞明白了“礼”对他的制约性,“如棠观鱼”这种“非礼”的事自然也就不会发生了。